(Dpa / Reuters / jr / BRU / lhp) Euro 5 diesel let through Hardware upgrade basically clear less polluting do. The ADAC had already demonstrated this in the spring of 2018. But can the nitrogen oxide emissions too permanently loweredso that the cars comply with the limits? The ADAC also wanted to know that and sent three vehicles with retrofit systems to one 50,000 kilometers long everyday endurance test, Result: The systems also worked well in continuous operation – but according to ADAC their effect at lower temperatures is not sufficient. And: fuel consumption and CO2 emissions rose partly strong.
ADAC: car industry in duty
The VW T5 Multivan was equipped with a SCR catalytic converter called NEO-Blue from Oberland Mangold.
“The good news is: 80 percent reduction are possible, “said Reinhard Kolke, head of the ADAC technology center in the Bavarian town of Landsberg am Lech, where the retrofitted vehicles were tested in summer temperatures, the systems would have managed to reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions under the now fixed Limit of 270 milligrams per kilometer to press. If it getting cooler outsideHowever, the systems hold the meanwhile set by the federal government limits for such retrofit solutions, however still not one, as the ADAC Württemberg as organizer of the test on March 18, 2019 in Stuttgart announced. The driver club now sees the Car industry in duty, It must ensure that the emissions of their cars at low temperatures do not increase as much as before. And she had to work intensively with the retrofit companies. This was the result of the ADAC endurance test in detail:
Diesel retrofit systems in the ADAC endurance test
What are the legal requirements?
The retrofit directive of the Federal Ministry of Transport, which has been in effect since January 2019, contains a defined NOx limit of 270 mg / km, which the conversion systems must meet in real operation (RDE) on the road in a temperature range of 5 to 30 degrees Celsius. At lower temperatures (between four and minus three degrees) the values may be higher by a factor of two (540 mg / km), at temperatures above 30 degrees Celsius the factor is 1.6 (432 mg / km). In addition, the additional consumption or the CO2 emissions More maximum six percent be. Most importantly, the manufacturer must ensure that the system functions over 100,000 km or over a lifetime of up to five years.
Which cars / systems have been tested?
The 50,000-kilometer test on a 700 kilometer route took five months (September 2018 to January 2019). Of the four test candidates for the ADAC initial measurement, the Opel Astra 1.7 CDTI retrofitted by Twintec Baumot and the two light commercial vehicles VW T5 Multivan from Oberland Mangold and Fiat Ducato from HJS were also present. The Fiat had the endurance test after an unrelated traffic accident after 33,000 kilometers prematurely ended.
The hardware solutions are able to permanently reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions of cars by up to 80 percent. But: The SCR systems, which were set up by the retrofitters in a few weeks and adapted to the test vehicle, were not yet able to guarantee a consistently reliable function. Temporary system failures and mechanical defects on SCR components were as well as a temporary unstable energy supply. The manufacturers still have some work to do in order to provide a necessary for the series maturity durability.
Result Fiat Ducato 130 Multijet 2.3 D (HJS)
The Fiat Ducato uses HJS largely serial parts the younger model variant with Euro 6b. With the exception of two temporary system failures, there were no relevant disruptions. This concept appears to work reliably with large amounts of stable NOx reduction and thus has the potential to be rapidly developed into a production-ready SCR retrofit system.
However, this can not be proved without any problems. For shortly after the 30,000-km intermediate measurement, the vehicle was involuntarily into a serious traffic accident, the everyday test had to be stopped prematurely.
Result VW T5 Multivan 2.0 TDI (Oberland Mangold)
Also Oberland Mangold sets in the VW T5 partly on proven series parts (AdBlue tank unit including all lines), which come in the successor model VW T6 used. For a long time, the VW also spooled the test without conspicuousness from. But after 30,000 km showed a sudden Deterioration of NOx emission levels. Reason: In the external hydrolysis reactor developed by Oberland Mangold, which is responsible for the AdBlue treatment, deposits formed, which subsequently restricted the functionality of the system. Although the malfunction could be remedied quickly, but for a series use the previously installed reactor would probably not be a definitive solution.
There is also a need for development in terms of NOx reduction rates. Especially at higher speeds, this rate is still very low.
Opel Astra 1.7 CDTI (Twintec)
The Opel Astra had to visit the workshop several times unscheduled – regardless of the SCR retrofit. However, he had with 140,000 kilometers and the highest total mileage on the clock. The SCR system for the Opel had to be completely redesigned and adapted by Twintec, since no SCR series components were available for this vehicle – a challenge. And so the test diary also recorded several failures and corresponding rework: a leaky cooling water pipe, a non-functioning level indicator of the AdBlue tank and a mechanical defect of an exhaust pipe to the hydrolysis reactor.
The energy management proved to be not yet mature. Nevertheless, the system of Twintec proves that an SCR retrofit is basically possible even with less favorable vehicle types. However, the development of series-ready solutions for such vehicles requires further technical creativity and probably also time.
Summer: NOx reduction works
Even under favorable external conditions at temperatures above 23 degrees Celsius, of the three test vehicles in the Real operation uncleaned series emissions of around 700 to 1100 milligrams of nitric oxide per kilometer emitted. Although the values are many times higher than the test bench limit of the Euro 5 emissions standard, succeeded in all three SCR systems, by the aftertreatment of the exhaust gases by means of catalysts and the urea AdBlue the Significantly reduce emissions, The measured reduction rates were in the RDE test between 64 and 80 percent and pushed the NOx emissions of the tested vehicles to or below the limit of 270 mg / km.
Autumn: NOx emissions increase enormously
The measurements showed that the uncleaned series emissions already at moderately cool temperatures between five and 13 degrees Celsius depending on the model solid rising can – keyword thermal windows. Even at ten degrees, the three test vehicles showed significantly higher NOx emissions: up to just under 2000 milligrams of nitric oxide per kilometer. Too much for the SCR retrofit systems. The reduction rates were still there at high 51 to 77 percent (HJS managed a 1400 milligram reduction!), But the absolute NOx value is even cleaned at least 400 mg / km – well above the 270 limit, which applies up to a temperature of five degrees Celsius.
Winter: cat effect decreases significantly
In winter at temperatures around the freezing point even the reduced limit for cold temperatures is clearly exceeded. However, the decisive factor is how and to what extent the vehicle manufacturer the exhaust aftertreatment goes back (With the Multivan, the emissions increase steadily, with the Opel Astra above a certain temperature level no more). And since the retrofitters do not know this strategy (because the vehicle manufacturers do not reveal it), the system application over the entire temperature range is particularly challenging.
But at least for the Opel, it would be technically feasible, according to ADAC, to reach this ambitious limit with sophisticated energy management, an efficient heating strategy of the SCR system and good thermal encapsulation of the SCR components.
Fuel consumption increases vigorously
None of the systems meets the requirements of the Retrofit Directive that the additional consumption or the CO2 excess emissions may amount to a maximum of six percent. While the system of Oberland-Mangold in the VW T5 manages with an additional consumption of seven percent and almost reaches the factor, the value of the Fiat Ducato (HJS) and the Opel Astra (Twintec) with 12 to 13 percent significantly above. On the Opel Astra, a revision of the energy management system is necessary, the Fiat Ducato could not be definitively determined due to the premature failure of the vehicle cause.
That's what the ADAC demands
For a functioning retrofit would have all parties work together better, The Retrofitters should continue to the reliability work on their systems and grant guarantees to customers. The automakers should in the view of the automobile club their Software Strategies in the exhaust gas purification To update and finally, finally Give up obstruction and develop common strategies with suppliers.
No approval from the KBA yet
For the planned hardware retrofits of older diesel cars in Germany there are no further approvals. Although four applications have been submitted, the documents required for the granting of a permit have not yet been submitted to the Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA). This is the result of a response from the Ministry of Transport in mid-February 2019 to a request from the Greens. The KBA has issued a total of six “basic approvals” for systems that reduce nitrogen oxide emissions – but only for buses in public transport. Another addendum is currently being processed. As far as passenger cars are concerned, if the complete permit applications have been submitted, the KBA usually issues the approval within two weeks. The retrofit provider Baumot recently announced a first General operating permit (KBA) to the KBA have requested. The application applies to the retrofitting of certain Daimler vehicles. For each engine family Baumot must make its own application.
1.2 million retrofits for diesel cars?
For Baumot CEO Marcus Hausser expects in the coming years of about 100,000 kits for passenger cars, in light commercial vehicles of nearly 40,000 retrofits. In view of impending or existing driving bans, the company expects in the coming years with possibly more than 1.2 million hardware retrofits for diesel cars. Whether the installation of retrofit kits should only be possible in authorized workshops, only in independent workshops or in both, according to a Baumot spokesman is still open: “We want for a market launch at the end of the year [2019, d. Red.] be deliverable. “
Registration already possible
If you want to convert your older diesel for the entrance into driving prohibition zones, you can already join Twintec / Baumot or at Dr. pley register without obligation, The systems of the two catalyst suppliers have been tested several times and can be used subject to certification by the Federal Motor Transport Authority.
Retrofit technically regulated
Transport Minister Scheuer warned the industry to regain confidence in motorists.
For the Hardware upgrades lie after a long wait since the end of December 2018 the technical regulations in front. Thus, according to the Federal Ministry of Transport of 28 December 2018, the federal government defines the requirements for the general operating permit of effective retrofit systems (for more details, see below). This is how the conversion of Euro 5 diesels with SCR catalytic converter works step by step:
Government wants to avert driving bans
The plans negotiated by the federal government with the auto industry serve to Driving bans in cities
avert. But many offers apply only to holders in the 14 highest with nitric oxide contaminated regions
, They should be new Offers to buy clean cars
and get just for engine retrofits. These regions are: Munich, Stuttgart, Cologne, Reutlingen, Düren, Hamburg, Limburg an der Lahn, Dusseldorf, Kiel, Heilbronn, Backnang, Darmstadt, Bochum and Ludwigsburg.
On the other hand, there are cities in which driving bans could come – that includes, among other things Frankfurt am Main, Cologne / Bonn
, To be included in all these cities, too resident
the neighboring counties and “car owners living outside these areas who are employed in the city”. As well self-employed
who have their headquarters in the city and therefore have to commute to the cities for professional reasons as well as vehicle owners with special hardships. These are the answers to the most urgent questions when it comes to retrofitting old diesel:
All information about diesel retrofitting
Retrofitting Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesels
A technical solution for retrofitting is primarily intended for Euro 5 cars. Of these, nearly six million are on the road in Germany. But also Euro-4 diesel come into question. With the support of the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Transport, the ADAC Württemberg e.V. has proven that hardware retrofits to Euro 5 diesel vehicles are highly effective. Up to 70 percent (urban) or 90 percent (out of town) emissions can be reduced by retrofitting such vehicles. For particularly polluted areas such as the Stuttgart Neckartor this could bring about an improvement in air quality by up to 25 percent.
Technical regulations for the general operating permit
Retrofitted vehicles must, according to the directive of the Federal Ministry of Transport, fall below a limit value for nitrogen oxide emissions of 270 milligrams per kilometer traveled during measurements. This value is important because the federal government wants to stipulate that diesel vehicles of the Euro 4 and Euro 5 emission standards will in future be exempted from driving bans – if they do not emit more than 270 milligrams of NOx in everyday life, for example with new hardware.
The manufacturer must confirm that the functionality of the retrofit system is guaranteed under normal operation over a service of 100,000 kilometers or over a service life of up to five years. The system must be “effective and functional” to minimum temperatures of -7 degrees (…). In addition, the car must not be louder after retrofitting than before.
These results promise the manufacturers
The manufacturers themselves even report up to 95 percent less harmful nitrogen oxides and even want to undercut the Euro 6 standard. The manufacturer BlueFit said: “After the retrofit of the car (a conventional medium-sized, three-year-old diesel vehicle with a 1.5-liter engine (Euro 5), Note Red) with BlueFit showed that the average emissions under real-world driving conditions to 40 mg of NOx per kilometer, which is well below the current Euro 6 emissions standard, which allows for 80 mg of NOx per kilometer. ” Very similar values were provided by TwinTec / Baumot. Even in unfavorable conditions, the testers measured around 50 percent less NOx in the exhaust gases.
These hardware solutions exist
Several vendors are working on retrofit solutions, most notably Twintec-Baumot, HJS, Dr. Ing. Frey and the Faurecia daughter Amminex. In principle, ammonia is introduced directly into the exhaust aftertreatment system in both solutions – in a conventional SCR system (SCR = Selective Catalytic Reduction), ammonia first forms in the exhaust pipe.
BNOx from Twintec-Baumot
At the heart of the conversion kit is an AdBlue system, which has undergone further technical development. Twintec does not inject the additive into the exhaust pipe, but instead generates ammonia in a small electric generator. The conversion can be carried out by any AU-authorized workshop and takes about half a day. Twintec announces that it will offer retrofit solutions “for all relevant vehicle types” as soon as the legal framework has been determined by the legislator. Price: 1500 Euro for BNOx plus 500 Euro workshop costs. A non-binding registration is possible here.
BlueFit from Faurecia / Amminex
The BlueFit solution consists of two main elements: on the one hand two cartridges with solid ammonia, which are housed in the spare wheel well, on the other hand, an SCR catalytic converter, which is attached to the exhaust pipe under the car. According to the manufacturer, BlueFit does not require any changes in the engine compartment, the calibration of the engine, the diesel particulate filter or the power grid. The standard BlueFit configuration has two ammonia cartridges, equivalent to 16 liters of AdBlue. The range should be around 15,000 kilometers before a two-minute cartridge replacement is required in a workshop. The installation of the system or retrofitting should be carried out by the car dealerships of the manufacturer and take four to six working hours. The beginning of a small series production is targeted for mid-2018. Price: “in a competitive framework”.
SCRT-Kat from HJS
The SCRT system from HJS costs 1500 euros. In addition to installation, total costs of about 2500 € are incurred, as the ADAC has determined. To convert the nitrogen oxides, the AdBlue fuel is added to the exhaust gas. Through the combined use of particulate filters and SCR technology with active thermal management, HJS guarantees maximum emission control. Depending on the engine power, the entire system can weigh between 25 and 45 kilograms. The AdBlue, which is now available at many petrol stations in Germany, must also be added. HJS expects an AdBlue consumption of about four liters per 1000 kilometers. According to the manufacturer, only one visual inspection should be carried out every two years as part of vehicle maintenance.
Retrofit system by Dr. med. pley
The Bamberg supplier and catalyst manufacturer Pley SCR Technology GmbH offers a NOx reduction system with increased reduction performance (NOx-MS-H) for selected EURO 5 diesel vehicles. Amongst other things, they tested on a Mercedes B-Class. A certification application has already been submitted to KBA, the price should be well below 3000 euros. The retrofit solution consists of only a few component groups: a catalyst module that is installed in the underfloor area, a hydrolysis reactor, nitrogen oxide sensors, a control unit for controlling the sensors and actuators. and an AdBlue tank with 1.35 l filling volume. A non-binding registration is possible here.
NEO-Blue from Oberland Swiss Chard
The retrofit SCR system NEO-Blue (NEO stands for NOx Emission Optimization) promises up to 70 percent less NOx emissions. It also has passenger cars, but especially light commercial vehicles such as the transporter VW T5 and Mercedes Viano with Euro 5 in the sights. The required ammonia, which converts the nitrogen oxide in the exhaust gas into water and nitrogen by means of hydrolysis in the SCR catalyst, is produced in a reactor by evaporation of the liquid reducing agent AdBlue. The components of the retrofit system are also here a hydrolysis reactor, the SCR catalytic converter with exhaust pipe, the AdBlue tank with pipes and an ECU control unit. To reduce costs, many standard components of the respective vehicle manufacturer are used, for example the AdBlue tank, the injection valve and other important components. A price is not clear yet.
Water injection from GoDiesel
In GoDiesel's water injection system, distilled water is injected into the intake air of the engine to reduce the very high combustion temperatures – the cause of NOx emissions – in the tip. According to the manufacturer, to a level that continues to ensure the function of diesel particulate filters or storage or oxidation catalysts. The GoDiesel water injection can be retrofitted to all passenger car diesel engines of the pollution classes Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 b / c. Various research projects should prove that the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the engines are not increased, running culture and performance remain unchanged. The cost is only about 1000 euros, it is promised a reduction in NOx by half. A guarantee insurance wants to give GoDiesel.
That costs the hardware retrofits
The cost of retrofitting Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesels is between 1400 and 3300 Euro per vehicle, the ADAC estimates. This would include the installation costs, probably at least one working day per vehicle. Some experts estimate between 5,000 and 7,000 euros per car. The new provider GoDiesel, whose system works with water injection, promises a price of around 1,000 euros.
Who pays for retrofitting?
This is not finally resolved. The car makers initially wanted to avoid a retrofit solution they financed at all costs, but have now signaled willingness to compromise, after the pressure from politics was too big. Volkswagen and Daimler agreed to buy the remaining older cars for up to 3000 euros to be retrofitted with catalysts. BMW refused the conversion, but wants to support the holder with older diesel with the same amount – for a new purchase. Most diesel owners in Germany would not want to pay for the retrofitting of the exhaust hardware, according to a representative survey of the opinion research institute YouGov. On the part of the manufacturer GoDiesel, it is meaningful to divide the costs between the automobile industry, the owners, the trade and the federal government. The fact that the carmakers take over all costs, is a maximum requirement that can hardly enforce.
This help is available for craftsmen and suppliers
The Federal Ministry of Transport initially provides a total of 333 million euros for two years. According to the ministry, the cost of retrofitting hardware for light craftsmen and delivery vehicles is between 4000 and 8000 euros per car, for heavy vehicles 6000 to 12,000 euros. The amount of the grant depends on the size of the company. For vehicles under 3.5 tonnes, there is a maximum of 3800 €, about 5000 € – but only if an application until 31 May 2019, then decreases the funding. The support program is limited until the end of 2020. The entire funding policy can be viewed here.
When will be converted?
Motorists will probably have to wait a while for diesel retrofit systems. Although manufacturers such as Baumot have already announced the planned solutions for Euro 5 diesel for 2019, some industry experts are calculating more cautiously: “I expect only in two years [2020, d. Red.] with significant quantities of available retrofit kits, “says Stefan Reindl, director of the Institute of Automotive Economics at the University of Applied Sciences in Geislingen, with a view to already decided or imminent for 2019 bans That should not be enough. Most recently, suppliers had expressed optimism about the topic: “I think we already Early 2019 Hubert Mangold, managing director of the catalytic converter manufacturer Oberland Mangold, said: “The exact time also depends on how quickly the Federal Ministry of Transport issues the announced guidelines and technical specifications Certification by the Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA).
Co-operation Nachüster and auto industry
“We need the support of the car manufacturer for the retrofitting,” says Hermann-Josef shoulder, chief of the retrofit HJS, according to a report of the WORLD. On the one hand, these would have to provide the technical data for the models concerned, on the other hand, the necessary parts, and at prices, as they pay the car companies. And then there is the question of the guarantee: Who assumes the liability for the subsequently installed catalysts and their control systems as well as in case of damage to other components, is one of the most important unresolved issues. The carmakers do not want to guarantee for parts that were not developed and built by them.
Nationwide retrofitting necessary?
The ADAC considers the retrofit feasible, but doubts the need for a nationwide retrofitting. The club recommends in an appraisal for the federal government to retrofit only those cars that are approved in polluted cities where other measures are not enough. The Association of Technical Inspection Associations (VdTüv) considers hardware retrofits to be “basically possible” with “corresponding technical complexity”. A “large-scale” action would take at least two years. Those who want to make sure that they are not affected by driving bans and loss of value, should consider getting a clean car with alternative drive or Euro 6d TEMP standard.
More consumption and AdBlue refueling
Retrofitted vehicles should consume more. Because the AdBlue system requires additional energy. Consumption of test vehicles increased by 0.1 to 0.3 liters per 100 kilometers, an increase of one to six percent. In addition, a performance penalty is expected. Also, the urea AdBlue must be refueled regularly, it must be estimated on average two liters of urea per 1000 kilometers. In order to avoid having to refill constantly, the ADAC requires at least 10 liters of capacity (range 3000 to 6000 kilometers) for AdBlue tanks. For such tanks space must be created in the vehicle.