Converting diesel (SCR): retrofitting Euro 5 diesel You should know this for retrofitting

Converting diesel (SCR): retrofitting Euro 5 diesel You should know this for retrofitting

You should know that for retrofitting

Older diesel of the Mercedes C and E class can be retrofitted: A manufacturer has for the release of the KBA. BMW should follow. All information about diesel conversion with SCR catalytic converter!

Dhe retrofitting old diesel with SCR cats to avoid any driving bans can begin: After Volvo can also Daimler diesel be retrofitted with excessive pollutant levels in Germany. For several models with diesel of the years 2008 to 2017, a cat manufacturer from Upper Franconia has received the approval of the Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA). Specifically, it is about the C-Class (C220 / 250cdi). the E-Class (E220 / 250cdi), the GLK 220 cdi and the V-Class as 220 cdi, The system developed by the Bamberger manufacturer Dr Pley is produced and distributed by the Bosal Retrofit. The company had announced that even in August were also approvals for vehicles from BMW to be expected.

Mercedes to Volvo, later BMW

Just over two weeks ago, the first operating permit for the retrofit systems of Dr. Ing. Pley has been granted for various Volvo models. The aim is that retrofitted vehicles of the Euro 5 emission standard can be exempted from driving bans. The retrofits to the engine are part of a government policy package for better air. According to the specifications of the KBA, the retrofitted cars may still emit 270 milligrams of nitric oxide per kilometer in real operation in order to be spared from driving bans.

Up to 3000 euros grant for retrofitting

German manufacturers had agreed after a long debate on subsidies for hardware upgrades. They favor software to improve exhaust emissions. Daimler is in the so-called priority regions 3000 euros to do so and has set up an extra website where car owners can check if they can get the grant. A nationwide driving ban for Euro-5 diesel is so far in any German city. These are the answers to the most urgent questions about retrofitting old diesels:,

All information about diesel retrofitting

Retrofitting Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesels

A technical retrofit solution is primarily intended for Euro 5 cars. Of these, nearly six million are on the road in Germany. But also Euro-4 diesel come into question. With the support of the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Transport, ADAC Württemberg proved that hardware retrofits to Euro 5 diesel vehicles are highly effective. Up to 70 percent (urban) or 90 percent (out of town) emissions can be reduced by retrofitting such vehicles. For particularly polluted areas such as the Stuttgart Neckartor this could bring about an improvement in air quality by up to 25 percent.

Technical regulations for the general operating permit

Retrofitted vehicles must according to the guideline of the Federal Ministry of Transport with measurements a limit with the Nitrogen oxide emissions of 270 milligrams per kilometer driven below. This value is important because the federal government wants to stipulate that diesel vehicles of the Euro 4 and Euro 5 emission standards will in future be exempted from driving bans – if they do not emit more than 270 milligrams of NOx in everyday life, for example with new hardware.

The manufacturer must confirm that the functionality of the retrofit system is guaranteed under normal operation over a service of 100,000 kilometers or over a service life of up to five years. The system must be “effective and functional” to minimum temperatures of -7 degrees (…). In addition, the car may not be louder after retrofitting than before.

These results promise the manufacturers

The manufacturers themselves even report up to 95 percent less harmful nitrogen oxides and even want to undercut the Euro 6 standard. The manufacturer BlueFit said: “After the retrofit of the car (a conventional medium-sized, three-year-old diesel vehicle with a 1.5-liter engine (Euro 5), Note Red) with BlueFit showed that the average emissions under real-world driving conditions to 40 mg of NOx per kilometer, which is well below the current Euro 6 emissions standard, which allows for 80 mg of NOx per kilometer. ” Very similar values ​​were provided by TwinTec / Baumot. Even in unfavorable conditions, the testers measured around 50 percent less NOx in the exhaust gases.

These hardware solutions exist

Several vendors are working on retrofit solutions, the best known Twintec-Baumot, dr. pley and the Faurecia daughter Amminex, In principle, ammonia is introduced directly into the exhaust aftertreatment system in both solutions – in a conventional SCR system (SCR = Selective Catalytic Reduction), ammonia first forms in the exhaust pipe.

Retrofit system by Dr. med. pley

The KBA supplier and catalyst manufacturer Dr Pley received approval from the KBA for cars with a Daimler diesel engine, which was installed in several models from the 2008 to 2017 model years. Specifically, it applies to the C-Class (C220 / 250cdi), the E-Class (E220 / 250cdi), the GLK 220 cdi and the V class as 220 cdi. The system developed by Dr Pley is produced and distributed by Bosal Retrofit. The system relies on NOx reduction with increased reduction performance (NOx-MS-H). For the price is little known, on its website, the manufacturer calls interested parties to register for a grant from Daimler over 3000 euros. The retrofit solution consists of only a few component groups: a catalyst module that is installed in the underfloor area, a hydrolysis reactor, nitrogen oxide sensors, a control unit for controlling the sensors and actuators. and an AdBlue tank with 1.35 l filling volume.

BNOx from Twintec-Baumot

At the heart of the conversion kit is an AdBlue system, which has undergone further technical development. Twintec does not inject the additive into the exhaust pipe, but instead generates ammonia in a small electric generator. The conversion can be carried out by any AU-authorized workshop and takes about half a day. Twintec announces that it will offer retrofit solutions “for all relevant vehicle types” as soon as the legal framework has been determined by the legislator. Price: 1500 Euro for BNOx plus 500 Euro workshop costs. A non-binding registration is possible here.

BlueFit from Faurecia / Amminex

The BlueFit solution consists of two main elements: on the one hand, two cartridges with solid ammonia, which are housed in the spare wheel well, on the other hand, an SCR catalytic converter, which is attached to the exhaust pipe under the car. According to the manufacturer, BlueFit does not require any changes in the engine compartment, the calibration of the engine, the diesel particulate filter or the power grid. The standard BlueFit configuration has two ammonia cartridges, equivalent to 16 liters of AdBlue. The range should be around 15,000 kilometers before a two-minute cartridge replacement is required in a workshop. The installation of the system or retrofitting should be carried out by the car dealerships of the manufacturer and take four to six working hours. The beginning of a small series production is targeted for mid-2018. Price: “in a competitive framework”.

SCRT-Kat from HJS

1500 Euro is to cost the SCRT system of HJS. In addition to installation, total costs of about 2500 € are incurred, as the ADAC has determined. To convert the nitrogen oxides, the AdBlue fuel is added to the exhaust gas. Through the combined use of particulate filters and SCR technology with active thermal management, HJS guarantees maximum emission control. Depending on the engine power, the entire system can weigh between 25 and 45 kilograms. The AdBlue, which is now available at many petrol stations in Germany, must also be added. HJS expects an AdBlue consumption of about four liters per 1000 kilometers. According to the manufacturer, only one visual inspection should be carried out every two years as part of vehicle maintenance. (Meanwhile, the medium-sized company from the Sauerland has announced to limit itself to solutions for crafts vehicles and vans. Reason: The necessary for passenger car systems teamwork with one or more automakers had not come about.)

NEO-Blue from Oberland Swiss Chard

The retrofit SCR system NEO-Blue (NEO stands for NOx emission optimization) promises up to 70 percent less NOx emissions. It also has passenger cars, but especially light commercial vehicles such as the transporter VW T5 and Mercedes Viano with Euro 5 in the sights. The required ammonia, which converts the nitrogen oxide in the exhaust gas into water and nitrogen by means of hydrolysis in the SCR catalyst, is produced in a reactor by evaporation of the liquid reducing agent AdBlue. The components of the retrofit system are also here a hydrolysis reactor, the SCR catalytic converter with exhaust pipe, the AdBlue tank with pipes and an ECU control unit. To reduce costs, many standard components of the respective vehicle manufacturer are used, for example the AdBlue tank, the injection valve and other important components. A price is not clear yet.

Water injection from GoDiesel

In GoDiesel's water injection system, distilled water is injected into the engine's intake air to reduce the very high combustion temperatures – the cause of NOx emissions – in the top. According to the manufacturer, to a level that continues to ensure the function of diesel particulate filters or storage or oxidation catalysts. The GoDiesel water injection can be retrofitted to all passenger car diesel engines of the pollution classes Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 b / c. Various research projects should prove that the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the engines are not increased, running culture and performance remain unchanged. The cost is only about 1000 euros, it is promised a reduction in NOx by half. A guarantee insurance wants to give GoDiesel.

That costs the hardware retrofits

The cost of retrofitting Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesels is between 1400 and 3300 Euro per vehicle, the ADAC estimates. This would include the installation costs, probably at least one working day per vehicle. Some experts estimate between 5,000 and 7,000 euros per car. The new provider GoDiesel, whose system works with water injection, promises a price of around 1,000 euros.

Who pays for retrofitting?

That's not clear yet. Volkswagen and Daimler are ready for the remaining older cars for up to 3000 euros to be retrofitted with catalysts. BMW refused the conversion, but wants to support the holder with older diesel with the same amount – for a new purchase. Most diesel owners in Germany would not want to pay for the retrofitting of the exhaust hardware, according to a representative survey of the opinion research institute YouGov. On the part of the manufacturer GoDiesel, it is meaningful to divide the costs between the automobile industry, the owners, the trade and the federal government. The fact that the carmakers take over all costs, is a maximum requirement that can hardly enforce.

This help is available for craftsmen and suppliers

The Federal Ministry of Transport initially provides a total of 333 million euros for two years. According to the ministry, the cost of retrofitting hardware for light craftsmen and delivery vehicles is between 4000 and 8000 euros per car, for heavy vehicles 6000 to 12,000 euros. The amount of the grant depends on the size of the company. For vehicles under 3.5 tonnes, there is a maximum of 3800 €, about 5000 € – but only if an application until 31 May 2019, then decreases the funding. The support program is limited until the end of 2020. The entire funding policy can be viewed here.

When will be converted?

The first manufacturer to specifically offer a retrofit kit is Dr. med. Pley announcing the conversion for Volvo and a few Mercedes series at the beginning of August. BMW should follow. Drivers of other brands will probably have to wait a while for diesel retrofit systems.

Who is liable for the retrofit kits?

The question of the guarantee is still open: who assumes the liability for the subsequently installed catalysts and their control systems as well as in case of damage to other components, is one of the most important unresolved issues. The carmakers do not want to guarantee for parts that were not developed and built by them.

Nationwide retrofitting necessary?

The ADAC considers the retrofit feasible, but doubts the need for a nationwide retrofitting. The club recommends in an appraisal for the federal government to retrofit only those cars that are approved in polluted cities where other measures are not enough. The Association of Technical Inspection Associations (VdTüv) considers hardware retrofits to be “basically possible” with “corresponding technical effort”. A “large-scale” action would take at least two years. Those who want to make sure that they are not affected by driving bans and loss of value, should consider getting a clean car with alternative drive or Euro 6d TEMP standard.

More consumption and AdBlue refueling

Retrofitted vehicles should consume more. Because the AdBlue system requires additional energy. Consumption of test vehicles increased by 0.1 to 0.3 liters per 100 kilometers, an increase of one to six percent. In addition, a performance penalty is expected. Also, the urea AdBlue must be refueled regularly, it must be estimated on average two liters of urea per 1000 kilometers. In order to avoid having to refill constantly, the ADAC requires at least ten liters of capacity (range 3000 to 6000 kilometers) for AdBlue tanks. For such tanks space must be created in the vehicle.

50,000 km long-term test from the ADAC

The VW T5 Multivan was equipped with a SCR catalytic converter called NEO-Blue from Oberland Mangold.

The ADAC had proven early in the year 2019 that retrofit system for Euro 5 diesel basically Permanently reduce nitrogen oxide emissions that the cars can do that Comply with limit values, But had the three vehicles with retrofit systems on one 50,000 kilometers long everyday endurance test cleverly. Result: The systems also functioned well in continuous operation. Up to 80 percent emission reduction is possible, according to ADAC. But according to ADAC, their effect at lower temperatures is not enough. In summer temperatures, the systems would have managed to lower the nitrogen oxide emissions below the now established Limit of 270 milligrams per kilometer to press. If it getting cooler outsideHowever, the systems hold the meanwhile set by the federal government limits for such retrofit solutions, however still not one, said the ADAC Württemberg in March in Stuttgart. And: fuel consumption and CO2 emissions rose partly strong. This was the result of the ADAC endurance test in detail:

Diesel retrofit systems in the ADAC endurance test

What are the legal requirements?

The retrofit directive of the Federal Ministry of Transport, which has been in effect since January 2019, contains a defined NOx limit value of 270 mg / km, which the conversion systems must meet in real operation (RDE) on the road in a temperature range of 5 to 30 degrees Celsius. At lower temperatures (between four and minus three degrees) the values ​​may be higher by a factor of two (540 mg / km), at temperatures above 30 degrees Celsius the factor is 1.6 (432 mg / km). In addition, the additional consumption or the CO2 emissions More maximum six percent be. Most importantly, the manufacturer must ensure that the system functions over 100,000 km or over a lifetime of up to five years.

Which cars / systems have been tested?

The 50,000-kilometer test on a 700 kilometer route took five months (September 2018 to January 2019). Of the four test candidates for the ADAC initial measurement, the Opel Astra 1.7 CDTI retrofitted by Twintec Baumot and the two light commercial vehicles VW T5 Multivan from Oberland Mangold and Fiat Ducato from HJS were also present. The Fiat had the endurance test after an unrelated traffic accident after 33,000 kilometers prematurely ended.

Fundamental conclusion

The hardware solutions are able to permanently reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions of cars by up to 80 percent. But: The SCR systems, which were set up by the retrofitters in a few weeks and adapted to the test vehicle, were not yet able to guarantee a consistently reliable function. Temporary system failures and mechanical defects on SCR components were as well as a temporary unstable energy supply. The manufacturers still have some work to do in order to provide a necessary for the series maturity durability.

Result Fiat Ducato 130 Multijet 2.3 D (HJS)

The Fiat Ducato uses HJS largely serial parts the younger model variant with Euro 6b. With the exception of two temporary system failures, there were no relevant disruptions. This concept seems to work reliably with large amounts of stable NOx reduction and thus has the potential to be further developed in the near future into a production-ready SCR retrofit system.

However, this can not be proved without any problems. For shortly after the 30,000-km intermediate measurement, the vehicle was involuntarily in a serious traffic accident, the everyday test had to be stopped prematurely.

Result VW T5 Multivan 2.0 TDI (Oberland Mangold)

Also Oberland Mangold sets in the VW T5 partly on proven series parts (AdBlue tank unit including all lines), which come in the successor model VW T6 used. For a long time the VW also spooled the test without conspicuousness from. But after 30,000 km showed a sudden Deterioration of NOx emission levels. Reason: In the external hydrolysis reactor developed by Oberland Mangold, which is responsible for the AdBlue treatment, deposits formed, which subsequently restricted the functionality of the system. Although the malfunction could be remedied quickly, but for a series use the previously installed reactor would probably not be a definitive solution.

There is also a need for development in terms of NOx reduction rates. Especially at higher speeds, this rate is still very low.

Opel Astra 1.7 CDTI (Twintec)

The Opel Astra had to visit the workshop several times unscheduled – regardless of the SCR retrofit. However, he had with 140,000 kilometers and the highest total mileage on the clock. The SCR system for the Opel had to be completely redesigned and adapted by Twintec, since no SCR standard components were available for this vehicle – a challenge. And so the test diary also recorded several failures and corresponding rework: a leaky cooling water pipe, a non-functioning level indicator of the AdBlue tank and a mechanical defect of an exhaust pipe to the hydrolysis reactor.

The energy management proved to be not yet mature. Nevertheless, the system from Twintec proves that an SCR retrofit is basically possible even with less favorable vehicle types. But the development of series-ready solutions for such vehicles requires more technical creativity and probably also time.

Summer: NOx reduction works

Even under favorable external conditions at temperatures above 23 degrees Celsius, of the three test vehicles in the Real operation uncleaned series emissions of around 700 to 1100 milligrams of nitric oxide per kilometer emitted. Although the values ​​are many times higher than the test bench limit of the Euro 5 emission standard, succeeded in all three SCR systems, by the aftertreatment of the exhaust gases by means of catalysts and the urea AdBlue the Significantly reduce emissions, The measured reduction rates were in the RDE test between 64 and 80 percent and pushed the NOx emissions of the tested vehicles to or below the limit of 270 mg / km.

Autumn: NOx emissions increase enormously

The measurements showed that the uncleaned series emissions already at moderately cool temperatures between five and 13 degrees Celsius depending on the model solid rising can – keyword thermal windows. Even at ten degrees, the three test vehicles showed significantly higher NOx emissions: up to just under 2000 milligrams of nitric oxide per kilometer. Too much for the SCR retrofit systems. The reduction rates were still there at high 51 to 77 percent (HJS managed a 1400 milligram reduction!), But the absolute NOx value is even cleaned at least 400 mg / km – well above the 270 limit, which applies up to a temperature of five degrees Celsius.

Winter: cat effect decreases significantly

In winter at temperatures around the freezing point, even the reduced limit for cold temperatures is clearly exceeded. However, the decisive factor is how and to what extent the vehicle manufacturer the exhaust aftertreatment goes back (With the Multivan, the emissions increase steadily, with the Opel Astra above a certain temperature level no more). And since the retrofitters do not know this strategy (because the vehicle manufacturers do not reveal it), the system application over the entire temperature range is particularly challenging.

But at least for the Opel, it would be technically feasible, according to ADAC, to reach this ambitious limit with sophisticated energy management, an efficient heating strategy of the SCR system and good thermal encapsulation of the SCR components.

Fuel consumption increases vigorously

None of the systems meets the requirements of the Retrofit Directive that the additional consumption or the CO2 excess emissions may amount to a maximum of six percent. While the system of Oberland-Mangold in the VW T5 manages with an additional consumption of seven percent and almost reaches the factor, the value of the Fiat Ducato (HJS) and the Opel Astra (Twintec) with 12 to 13 percent significantly above. On the Opel Astra, a revision of the energy management system is necessary, the Fiat Ducato could not be definitively determined due to the premature failure of the vehicle cause.

That's what the ADAC demands

For a functioning retrofit would have all parties work together better, The Retrofitters should continue to the reliability work on their systems and grant guarantees to customers. The automakers should in the view of the automobile club their Software Strategies in the exhaust gas purification To update And finally, finally Give up obstruction and develop common strategies with suppliers.

This is how the conversion of Euro 5 diesels with SCR catalytic converter works step by step:

With material from dpa and Reuters.

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